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Cite Sources

Cite Sources

MLA Intro

MLA refers to the Modern Language Association, founded in 1883 to represent language and literature researchers and teachers. MLA style is primarily used in the humanities. The Ninth Edition, published in 2021, has these updates from the 8th edition: a chapter on inclusive language, guidelines for formatting a paper, a brief introduction to the principles of citation,  and a list of works cited.  MLA 9 focuses on the SOURCE and the CONTAINER that holds the source.  

Use this guide or contact a librarian for assistance.  You can find the MLA 9th edition listed on the Welcome Page of this guide. 

In-Text Citations

MLA uses parenthetical citations within the text to refer the reader, in the briefest way possible, to the entry in the works-cited list. This in-text citation begins with whatever is first in the entry: either the author's name or the title (or the description of the work.)  The citation can appear in your paragraph or in parentheses.

Works Cited

Baron, Naomi S. "Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media." PMLA, vol. 128, no.1,Jan.2013, pp. 193-200.

In-Text in paragraph:

      Naomi Baron broke new ground on the subject.

In-text in parentheses:

      At least one researcher has broken new ground on the subject (Baron). 

If a specific part of a work is quoted or paraphrased and the work includes a page number, line number, time stamp or other indicator of where to find that information, the location marker must be included in parentheses. See the two options for doing this below:

         According to Naomi Baron, reading is "just half of literacy.  The other half is writing" (194). One might even suggest that reading is never complete without writing.

        Reading is "just half of literacy. The other half is writing" (Baron 194). One might even suggest that reading is never complete without writing.

Note that the in-text citation includes the page number without the abbreviation pp. (for pages) that is used in the works-cited entry.







Additional Sources

Elements of a Citation

Works Cited Guide from MLA

Entries in the Works-Cited List

Entries in the works-cited list are created using the MLA template of core elements.  See the list of core elements below.  You should list each element relevant to your source in the order listed on the template.  The template also includes the proper punctuation to follow each element.  A work containing another work can be itself contained in a work, such as in a journal and contained in a database, so you can repeat the process by filling out the template again from Title of Container to Location.   In the works-cited list entry, generally follow the same guidelines as for prose for the following:  

  • Capitalize words, names, and titles.
  • Style titles the same (in italics or quotation marks.

   MLA Core Elements

   1. Author.

   2. Title of Source.

   3. Title of Container,

   4. Contributor,

   5. Version,

   6. Number,

   7. Publisher,

   8. Publication Date,

   9. Location. (Note: this refers to page ranges and other location markers, not the place of publication.)