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Cite Sources

Cite Sources

Turabian - In-Text Citations

There are a couple of ways you can handle in-text citations in Turabian format: the author-date system or the notes-and-bibliography system. Author-date is generally used in the sciences, and notes-and-bibliography is generally used in the humanities. Be sure to ask your instructor whether one style is preferred over another for your assignment.

In the author-date system, items in your text are cited with this basic format:

(Author and year, page #)

It has been argued that In the Lake of the Woods provides an instance of the novel "questioning the act of storytelling itself" (Cohen 2009, 123).

If you cite the author in your sentence itself, you can leave the author's name out of your parenthetical citation:

As Samuel S. Cohen notes, In the Lake of the Woods "is structured in an extraordinarily self-negating way" (2009, 126). [note: in this example, the parenthetical citation could also have followed Cohen's name.]

In the notes-and-bibliography system, you'll include one citation in a footnote or endnote, and one in your bibliography at the end. Use superscript numbers in-text to indicate that a reference can be found in a footnote or endnote. See the rest of this guide for advice on how to handle citations in footnotes, endnotes, and bibliographies.


For the purposes of your work, Turabian style is essentially the same as Chicago style. The biggest difference is that for electronic sources - database articles, e-books, websites - you need to include the date you accessed the source.


Example for author-date format:

Petry, Alice Hall. 1989. "Alice Walker:

        The Achievement of the Short Fiction.

         "Modern Language Studies 19 (1):12-27.

          /stable/3195263 (accessed July 11, 2013).

Example for notes-and-bibliography format:

Footnote or endnote: 

Alice Hall Petry. "Alice Walker: The Achievement of

         the Short Fiction." Modern Language Studies 19,

         no. 1 (1989): 14,
 (accessed July 11,



Petry, Alice Hall. "Alice Walker: The Achievement of the

         Short Fiction." Modern Language Studies 19, no.

          1 (1989): 12-27.

           edu/stable/3195263 (accessed July 11, 2013).

Otherwise, see the relevant pages in this guide for whichever format of Chicago style (author-date or notes-and-bibliography) you're working with.