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Cite Sources: CSE

Cite Sources

CSE - In-Text Citations

There are a couple of different ways to handle in-text citations in CSE style. One is to use superscript numerals like the following examples (note: when citing multiple references, don't put a space between the comma and the next reference):

As previous studies indicate 15,19,

Previous studies have validated this speculation 4-7.

Another way is to use the name-year system. This way, you include a parenthetical citation for authors that points to an item in your list of references.

A study found that only very large flocks of birds register on weather radar (Koistinen 2000).

One study has shown that Caspian terns prefer to nest on sand (Quinn and Sirdevan 1998).

One experiment demonstrated that testosterone levels in male Northern cardinals do not significantly increase during aggressive interaactions (DeVries et al. 2012). [this is how you cite an article by more than two authors - the first author listed is the one you name in the citation.]

In the name-year system, you can also name an author in-text like this:

A study by Jarmo Koistinen found that only very large flocks of birds register on weather radar (2000).

For in-text citations of materials where an author isn't named, if you want to go with the name-year system you can cite the first word or first couple of words of the title, followed by an ellipsis and the year:

(Understand...2013)

CSE - Books

To cite a book, there are a couple of different patterns you can follow, depending on how you've chosen to do your in-text citations:

If your in-text citations follow the superscript numeral system, you can cite books like this:

Author, AA. Title. [Edition if any.] Place of publication (two-letter abbreviation for state or country - see this table for country codes): Publisher; Year.

Henderson, DS. Death and donation: rethinking brain death as a means for procuring transplantable organs. Eugene (OR): Pickwick Publications; 2011.

Askin E, Moore N. The health care handbook: a clear and concise guide to the United States health care system. St. Louis (MO): Washington University in St. Louis; 2012.

Sutton AL, editor. Breast cancer sourcebook. 4th ed. Detroit (MI): Omnigraphics; 2012.

If your in-text citations follow the name-year system, you can cite books like this:

Author, AA. Year. Title. [Edition if any.] Place of publication (two-letter abbreviation for state or country - see this table for country codes): Publisher.

Henderson, DS. 2011. Death and donation: rethinking brain death as a means for procuring transplantable organs. Eugene (OR): Pickwick Publications.

Askin E, Moore N. 2012. The health care handbook: a clear and concise guide to the United States health care system. St. Louis (MO): Washington University in St. Louis.

Sutton AL, editor. 2012. Breast cancer sourcebook. 4th ed. Detroit (MI): Omnigraphics.

To cite an e-book, just include information about where and when you read it. Added elements are underlined in this example:

Becker A. Orthodontic treatment of impacted teeth [Internet]. 3rd ed. Chichester, West Sussex (GB): Wiley-Blackwell; 2012 [cited 2013 July 5]. Available from: http://0-site.ebrary.com.libcat.uafs.edu/lib/uafs/docDetail.action?docID=10538671

CSE - Articles & Book Chapters

To cite an article, there are a couple of different patterns you can follow, depending on how you've chosen to do your in-text citations:

If your in-text citations follow the superscript numeral system, you can cite articles like this:

Author AA. Title of article. Title of Journal [abbreviated]. Year of article;volume(issue);page numbers.

Tormey CA, Stack G. Limiting the extent of a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction with automated red blood cell exchange. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2013;137(6):861-864.

If your in-text citations follow the name-year system, you can cite articles like this:

Author AA. Year of article. Title of article. Title of Journal [abbreviated]. Volume(issue);page numbers.

Tormey CA, Stack G. 2013. Limiting the extent of a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction with automated red blood cell exchange. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 137(6):861-864.

An article with several authors:

(Superscript numeral): Zagarins SE, Ronnenberg AG, Gehlbach SH, Lin R, Bertone-Johnson ER. Are existing measures of overall diet quality associated with peak bone mass in young premenopausal women? J Hum Nutr Diet. 2012;25(2):172-179.

(Name-year):Zagarins SE, Ronnenberg AG, Gehlbach SH, Lin R, Bertone-Johnson ER. 2012. Are existing measures of overall diet quality associated with peak bone mass in young premenopausal women? J Hum Nutr Diet. 25(2):172-179.

For an article with more than ten authors, list the first ten authors and end that part of the citation with "et al."

If your source doesn't provide an abbreviated title for the journal, look the journal up in NLM Catalog to find out how it should be abbreviated.

For an article in a freely available online journal:

(Superscript numeral):Coetzer W, Hamer M, Parker-Allie F. A new era for specimen databases and biodiversity information management in South Africa. Biodiversity Informatics. 2012 [cited 2013 July 3];8:1-11.

(Name-year): Coetzer W, Hamer M, Parker-Allie F. 2012. A new era for specimen databases and biodiversity information management in South Africa. Biodiversity Informatics. [Cited 2013 July 3];8:1-11.

For book chapters (note: these examples all follow the superscript numeral in-text citation pattern. If you're using name-date in-text citations, just move the date to after the title):

If you're citing a chapter from a book that was written by a single author or authors, you need to cite the full book before you cite the chapter.

Author AA. Title of book. Place of publication (two-letter abbreviation for state or country - see this table for country codes): Publisher; Year. Chapter number, Title of chapter; p. #-#.

Hillstrom K. U.S. health policy and politics: a documentary history. Washington (DC): CQ Press; 2012. Chapter 3, The professionalization of American medicine, 1860-1890; p. 84-132.

If you're citing a chapter that was contributed to an edited book, cite the chapter and then the book itself:

Author AA. Title of chapter. In: Author BB. Title of book. Place of publication (two-letter abbreviation for state or country - see this table for country codes): Publisher; Year. p. #-#.

Pastel RH, Ritchie EC. Mitigation of psychological effects of weapons of mass destruction. In: Ritchie EL, Watson PJ, Friedman MJ, editors. Interventions following mass violence and disasters: strategies for mental health practice. New York (NY): Guilford Press; 2006. p. 300-318.

CSE - Web Sites

To cite a web site, follow this basic pattern:

Author AA (if any). Title of page [Internet]. Place of publication (if any): publisher; date of publication [date last updated; date you're citing it]. Available from: URL

Understand your risk for congenital heart defects. Dallas (TX): American Heart Association; 2013 [modified 2013 Feb. 4; cited 2013 July 5]. Available from: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/
UnderstandYourRiskforCongenitalHeartDefects/Understand-Your-Risk-for-
Congenital-Heart-Defects_UCM_001219_Article.jsp

Not all of these elements may be available, but if you're unable to find more than a couple of them, you may want to reconsider whether this is a source you should be using for your research.

CSE - Other Sources

To cite e-mails and other kinds of personal communications, list them parenthetically in-text but not in your reference list. Include relevant information about the communication, and state that it's "unreferenced" (i.e. it doesn't show up in your full reference list).

The web site's navigation posed significant usability problems for study participants (email from A. B. Jones to me, unreferenced, June 28, 2013).

According to study participant A. B. Jones (written communication to me, unreferenced, June 28, 2013)...

According to study participant A .B. Jones (oral communication to me, unreferenced, June 28, 2013)...