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Cite Sources

Cite Sources

CSE - In-Text Citations

CSE refers to Council of Science Editors, and they publish a guide on Scientific Style and Format.  Our edition is dated and will be replaced in 2024, when the 9th edition comes out.  In the meantime, advice from the 7th edition is offered in this section. 

There are a couple of different ways to handle in-text citations in CSE style. One is to use superscript numerals like the following examples (note: when citing multiple references, don't put a space between the comma and the next reference):

As previous studies indicate 15,19,

Previous studies have validated this speculation 4-7.

Another way is to use the name-year system. This way, you include a parenthetical citation for authors that points to an item in your list of references.

A study found that only very large flocks of birds register on weather radar (Koistinen 2000).

One study has shown that Caspian terns prefer to nest on sand (Quinn and Sirdevan 1998).

One experiment demonstrated that testosterone levels in male Northern cardinals do not significantly increase during aggressive interaactions (DeVries et al. 2012). [this is how you cite an article by more than two authors - the first author listed is the one you name in the citation.]

In the name-year system, you can also name an author in-text like this:

A study by Jarmo Koistinen found that only very large flocks of birds register on weather radar (2000).

For in-text citations of materials where an author isn't named, if you want to go with the name-year system you can cite the first word or first couple of words of the title, followed by an ellipsis and the year:


Helpful Sources on CSE