Skip to Main Content

Cite Sources

Cite Sources

APA - Other Sources

A movie:

Lastname, Initial. Initial. (Director).

       (Year). Title [Motion picture].


Penn, A. (Director). 1967. Bonnie

        and Clyde [Motion picture].

         Warner Bros.

A YouTube video:

The basic format to follow is:

 Lastname, Initial. Initial.

        (Date of video). Title of video [Video].

        YouTube. URL. 

If author information isn't available, start with the title instead.

An interview, email or other personal communication:

This is a special case! If you're citing an interview that you conducted yourself (for example, with a test subject), or an email from someone to you, don't put it in your reference list. Instead, use an in-text citation with the format (personal communication, date).

Example: "As A. B. Jones informed me, the web site's navigation posed significant usability problems (personal communication, May 12, 2013)."

If you're citing an interview by someone else, you can cite it following this basic format for the particular source (magazine, radio, television).

APA - Data from Statista

Statista is a useful source for data. However, you must create your own citation for the data, using the source information provided in Statista. The basic format is  Author, A. A.  (Date). Title of data set [Data set]. Publisher. DOI or URL.


Kantar Media. (2021). Leading National Advertisers [Data

      set]. Advertising Age. Retrieved July 27, 2022 from



APA - Web Sites

For websites, APA recommends providing as many as possible of the same elements (author, title, etc.) that you'd provide for a print source.

You should also include as much information as necessary for someone else to find the source (usually the URL).

For example:

Zook, M. (2012). Mapping racist tweets in response

           to President Obama's re-election [Web log post.]  

           Retrieved from


Include a retrieval date when the contents of the page are designed to change over time and the page itself is not archived.  For example.

U.S .Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population

         clock.  U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved

        July 3, 2019, from https//    

For a report by a government agency or other organization, give the Author or Name of Group. (Date). Title. Publisher Name. DOI or URL.

City of Fort Smith Finance Department.  (2020).      

        Comprehensive annual financial report. City of Fort